Miami County,

Miami County is a county located in East Central Kansas. The county's population was estimated to be 30,900 in the year 2006. The official county code for Miami County is MI. Its county seat and most populous city is Paola. The Miami County Fair is held annually in Paola, the county seat. The county is named after the Miami Indian tribe which once lived nearby. Miami County is steeped in history from the Bleeding Kansas era.


The Early History of Miami County
by William G. Cutler (1883)
Miami County is located in the eastern tier of counties, next to Missouri, and in the second tier south from the Kansas River. It is bounded on the north by Johnson County, on the east by Missouri, south by Linn County, and west by Franklin County. When organized the county was named Lykins, in honor of David Lykins, long a resident of the county, and member of the first Territorial Council. The first Legislature of the Territory passed an act in 1855, bounding Lykins County as follows:"Beginning at the southeast corner of Johnson County, thence south twenty-four(24) miles, thence west twenty-four (24) miles, thence north twenty-four(24) miles to the southwest corner of Johnson County, thence east twenty-four (24) miles to the place of the beginning." Lykins County, as thus defined, was twenty-four miles square, and contained 368,640 acres.

The name of the county was changed from Lykins to Miami by the Legislature, June 3, 1861 and on March 3, 1868 an act approved which changed the boundaries of the county so as to include an additional half-mile strip on the west, and thus to increase the area by the equivalent of twelve sections, or 7,680 acres. The section line between the second and third tiers of sections in range twenty-one east, was made the western boundary; but since north of the third standard parallel, which is three miles south of the north line of the county, the corresponding ranges are one-half mile farther to the east than those south of said parallel, Miami County loses three half sections or 900 acres; therefore, the exact area of the county is 375,360 acres.

Miami County is diversified as to surface, about twenty per cent being bottom land, and eighty percent upland. The uplands are, for the most part, gently rolling, the highest hills in Osawatomie township not being more than 130 feet above the level of the bottom lands. These latter average one mile in width. the valley of the Marais des Cygnes, the widest of the valleys, averages about two miles in width.

The principal streams are the Marais des Cygnes and Pottawatomie Creek, both of which enter the county from the west, and uniting one mile west east of Osawatomie, form the Osage River which flows east five miles, then south, leaving the county nine miles west of the eastern boundary line. Bull Creek is a large stream entering the county from the north, and flowing south into the Marais des Cygnes; Rock Creek and Wade's branch are tributary to Bull Creek from the west, and Little Bull, Ten Mile and Wea creeks from the east. Wea is a large stream with three branches. Elm Creek is a short stream, rising near the center of the county, and flowing south into the Marais des Cygnes.

Middle Creek sites in the eastern part of the county, and flows generally southwardly into the Marais des Cygnes in Linn County. Sugar Creek rises in the southeast part of the county, and flows south into Linn County. Walnut Creek is a branch of Middle Creek from the west. Mound Creek rises in the southwest corner of the county, and flows east, then southeast, into the Marais des Cygnes, Linn county. Besides these streams, there is a large number of smaller ones; an abundance of springs and good well water is found at a depth varying fifteen to one hundred feet.

The principal varieties of native grasses are "prairie" grass, blue-joint and wire grass. Prairie grass grows everywhere on the uplands, and is most abundant; blue-joint grows on moist ground, and is very sweet and nutritious; wire grass is not specially valuable.

The principal kinds of native timber are the cottonwood, coffee-bean, hackberry, hickory, linn or basswood, maple, mulberry, oak-Spanish, black, burr and post-pecan and walnut. These grow mostly along the creeks, average width of belts being about one-half mile, and occupying about ten per cent of the surface, open prairie occupying ninety per cent.

On the uplands the soil varies in depth from one to four feet; in the valleys from four to thirty feet. It is everywhere exceedingly fertile. The subsoil is usually clay. Good limestone is found in almost every locality. There is also considerable sandstone. A species of limestone, resembling gray granite, is found in Mound Township, and in the central and southern portions is found what is called "Fontana marble", from the town Fontana, near which the principal quarries of the marble are located. This marble resembles the Junction City stone, is readily shaped with saw or plane, and is quite valuable for building purposes.

Coal is believed to underlie about one-fourth of the county but the quality is generally too poor, and the layers are too thin to justify working.

In various parts of the county there have been found "tar springs" and "oil springs". The most noted of these are the "Wea Tar Spring", the "Beaver Tar Spring", the "Won-Zop-peach Tar Spring", "Dales Oil Spring", and "Honeywells Oil Spring." The existence of some of these springs had been known to the Indians from time immortal, and to the white men about thirty-five years. But prospecting for petroleum was not undertaken until 1882. In July of the year the Kansas Oil and Mining Company bored down on the farm of A. Westfall, about seven miles east of Paola, to the depth of 300 feet, obtaining a copious supply of gas. In order not to lose this gas the drill was raised and a second well commenced in August, about thirty rods from the first, with the determination of reaching petroleum or the level of the sea, about eight hundred feet below the surface. At a depth of 330 feet, reached September 1, sufficient gas flowing from the two wells to light a city of 1,000,000 inhabitants, and the gas was remarkably pure.

Miami County is remarkably productive. It contributed largely to the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia. The largest apple on exhibition there was from the farm of Fred. Wygant, near Osawatomie, Miami county. This apple was twenty-four and one-half inches in circumference and weighed twenty-eight and one-half ounces, and a corn-stalk nineteen and one-third feet long was designed for that exhibition, but while on the way through Osawatomie a pair of mules ate two or three feet off the top of it and the sending of it was then abandoned.

Indian History
The Indians that have lived in Miami County are the Miamis, the Confederated tribes, the Pottawatomies and the Shawnees.

The Shawnee reservation embraced a strip of land across the northern end of the county, about two and one fourth miles in width. Some of them continued to live here until 1866, when with the remainder of their tribe they moved to the Indian Territory.

The Pottawatomie reservation, which was partly in Franklin County, embraced in Miami County, Mound and Osawatomie townships and a small portion of Stanton and Valley township, in all about eighty square miles, or 51,000 acres. This tribe was removed to a reservation on the Kansas river in 1847-48 where a portion of them still remain.

The Confederated Tribes were composed of the Weas, Piakeshaws, Peorias and Kaskaskias. They inhabited the northern part of the county, bordering the Shawnee Reservation. Upon their removal here they were but remnants of previously large and powerful tribes. The Weas were at one time a portion of the Miami tribe, their language being almost identical with that of the Miamis. The Confederated Tribes formerly lived in Southern Illinois. In 1818 they removed to Eastern Missouri and settled near St. Genevieve. In 1827 the Weas and Piakeshaws moved to what is now Miami County, the Peorias followed in a year or two, and the Kaskaskias came in 1832. From this time until 1854, these tribes continued to live in undisturbed possession on their reservation, when it became necessary to open the country to settlement, and a treaty was made between them and the Government by which they sold all their lands except for 160 acres for each member of the tribe, ten sections for tribal purposes, and one section for the support of a Mission School.

In the formation of this treaty, Col. Manypenny represented the Government and Kio-kun-no-zah, Yellow Beaver, and others as chiefs the Indians; Baptiste Peoria acting as interpreter. As white settlers came in and filled up the county, the Confederated tribes made preparations to make one more removal. With the consent of the Government, a delegation from the tribes purchased a portion of the lands of the Quapaws and Senecas in the Indian Territory in 1866. The purchase was ratified by treaty in 1868 and most of the Confederated tribes removed to their new homes, on Spring River, that year. Many of those who remained were admitted to citizenship and were prosperous members of the community, while some have since gone to the Indian Territory.

When the treaty of 1854 was made, the Confederated Tribes numbered 260, but they have steadily declined in numbers. At least two of the members of the Confederated tribes are worthy of brief mention-Win-ris-cah, or Christmas Dagnette, and Baptiste Peoria. The former was born near Terre Haute, Ind., about the year 1800. He was a nephew of a Wea chief, and received a liberal education. Besides three or four Indian languages, he could speak English, French, and Spanish, and at the age of sixteen acted as interpreter for the Government. He removed to Kansas with his tribe, which he served for a number of years as chief and died in 1848.

Baptiste Peoria was born also about the year 1800, near Kaskaskia, Ill. He did not receive a school education but by the natural force of his intellect acquired a number of Indian languages, the Shawnee, Delaware and Pottawatomie, besides those of the several Confederated Tribes, and also English and French. He acted for many years in the capacity of interpreter, and for some time as chief, but generally preferred to be on the "outside" as there he could be of much more use to his tribe, which during almost the whole of his long life continued to look up to him as their best advisor. When the tribes removed to the Indian Territory, Baptiste went with them and died there in the year 1874. He was a man of large and enlightened views, and was distinguished for the virtues which spring from a kindly heart and generous spirit. His widow, who was at the time of her marriage to him, the widow of Christmas Dagnette, still resides in Paola, at the ripe age of eighty-two, loved and respected by all who know her.

The Miamis were the first settlers in Miami County. They, as a a portion of the Shawnees, were originally from Ohio. They were removed to what is now Indiana, by Gen. Anthony Wayne, in accordance with the treaty of August 3, 1795. In 1840, a treaty was made by which they agreed to remove to new homes in the Indian Territory (now Kansas) and in 1846, eight hundred Miamis located in the southeast part of the present Miami County, on Sugar Creek. In 1847 about 300 more arrived; and in 1848 about 500 of them returned to Indiana, which return was afterwards acquiesced in by act of Congress.

In the same year those Miamis remaining in the county removed their home from Sugar Creek to the Marias des Cygnes in the central southern portion of the county, locating at what has since been known as Miami village. The removal was caused by sickness, superinduced by change of climate, privation and exposure. In three years from the time of their arrival on Sugar Creek their number was reduced by death from 600 to 300, one-half the deaths occurring on Sugar Creek. Their principal burying ground was then about two miles southeast of the present village of Rockville.

The original Miami reservation consisted of about 500,000 acres of land, and was bounded on the east by Missouri, on the south by the reservation of the New York Indians, on the west by the Pottawatomie reservation, and on the north by that of the Confederated tribes. In 1854, as white settlers began to see homes on the Miami reservation, the Government purchased all but 72,000 acres, Col Manypenny acting for the Government and Now-a-lun-qua ("Big-Legs") on the part of the Miamis and Jack Hackley as interpreter.

The Miamis remained on this remnant of their reservation until 1871, when having been reduced to about 130 in number, the most of them removed to the Neosho River in the Indian Territory. A few remained and became citizens of the United States, made considerable progress in agriculture, and became useful, upright and respected citizens.

The agents for these tribes have been the following: Col. Ely Moore, until 1854; Col. A. M. Coffey, 1854 to 1855; Col. M. McCaslin, 1855 to 1857; Gen. Seth Clover, 1857 to 1861; Col. G. A. Colton, 1861 to 1869; James Stanley, 1869 to the time the Agency was abolished. Col. McCaslin was removed by President Buchanan for having protested against the invasion of Kansas by Missourians. He was Colonel of the Fifteenth Virginia Infantry during the rebellion.

Early Settlements
One of the first white men to settle in Miami County was David Lykins, who came here in 1844, from Vigo County, Ind. as missionary to the Confederated tribes of Indians. Other missionaries and teachers came to these tribes and to the Miamis, from time to time, and also traders, all of whom came to aid or live among the Indians.

In 1854, bona fide settlers began to arrive with the object of making homes for themselves and developing the resources of the county. Among these in various parts of the county were S. H. Houser, in Stanton township; in Osawatomie Township, Daniel Goodrich, C. A. Foster, John Childers, Harmon Dace, C. H. Crane, John Serpell, William Chestnut, S. L. Adair, R. W. Wood, and O. C. Brown; In Paola, Knowles, Isaac and William Shaw and their mother in June and their brother Cyrus in September, T. J. Hedges, D. L. Peery and W. A. Hesikell; in Richland Township, David Anderson and others; in Middle Creek township, William Blair.

In 1855, the following settlers arrived at Paola: Capt. Arbuckle, Charles Alexander, S. P. Boone, W. D. Hoover, Elias Hughes, Thomas Hill, H. Harbison, Dr. Finlay, James and Joseph Lykins, Peter Potts, J. A. and J. H. Phillips, George Tomlinson, and Allen T. Ward; in Osawatomie, Thomas Roberts, S. M. Merritt, James Hughes, James Williams, N. T. Roscoe, William, John, and Patrick Poland, W. A. Sears and John Littlejohn; in Stanton Township, H. B. Standiford, Benjamin Goodrich, James and W. H. Kinkaid, the Bingham boys, Samuel and William Whitehead, Israel Christie, John West, Caleb and Robert Sherer, Hiram Mullens, Josiah and D. H. Bundy, W. B. and Isaiah Nichols, John T. Benning, John Van Horn, Thomas and Perry O'Brien, Orrin Williams, John Oliver, Thomas Roberts and Rev. Martin White. In Wea township, George Town and sons arrived in 1856 and in 1857, J, W. Chandoins, William Blair, Nathan Childers, William Catching, Thomas Grinter, Sumner Myers, S. G. Echols and quite a number of others.

In Osage Township, A. Mobley settled as early as 1854 and in 1857, when the lands were open to settlement, quite a large number came in, among them, John Dodd, William Tovinger, J. H. Bruner, A. Westfall, Jonas King, Abijah Bales, James Jones, and A. P. Brown; in 1858, Jerimiah Jolly, Jonathan Ruble, Isaac Polhamus and from fifteen to twenty others. In Marysville Township, H. L. Lyons, James and John Beets, J. G. and Enos McDaniel, J. J. and Owen Park, James Tindle, Joseph Goodwin, John Reed and Charles Barry.

The Battle of Osawatamie
by William G. Cutler (1883)
This was the most memorable battle of the Border War. It was fought August 30, 1856. Capt. John Brown, Dr. W. W. Updegraff and Capt. Cline commanded the defense, and Gen. John W. Reid the attacking party of 400 Missourians. Gen. Reid's command, after crossing the Marias des Cygnes, at Bundy's Ford, four miles northwest of Osawatomie, approached the town about daylight, Rev. Martin White acting as guide. Frederick Brown was making preparations to return to Lawrence that day, and on his way to Rev. S. L. Adair's, met Gen. Reid and Rev. White with a small body of men in advance of the main force. He saluted them with "Good morning, boys; are you going to Lawrence to-day?" Rev. White replied:"Why, I know you!" and taking deliberate aim with his rifle, fired at Brown, shooting him dead in the road, about a mile west of town. This was twenty minutes before sunrise. Messengers were immediately dispatched to notify the people in town, and Capt. Brown, who was a half-mile east of town.

He, Dr. Updegraff and Capt. Cline collected their men together as rapidly as possible. At first it was designed to make use of the block-house as a defense, but learning that Reid had a cannon with him, this plan was abandoned and Brown and his men, forty-one in number, all told, took up their positions in the timber along the south side of the Marais des Cygnes, facing south; Capt. Brown, with seventeen men, on the right, Dr. W. W. Updegraff with ten men, in the center, and Capt. Cline, with fourteen men, on the left. There was also an independent command still further to the left, in the Emigrant Aid Company's mill, consisting of "Pap" Austin, an ex-regular soldier, and his large rifle, to which he had applied the fancy name of "Kill Devil", carrying an ounce ball.

When the forces were arranged in the woods the enemy was passing within about 600 yards of them, Mr. Holmes, a volunteer, advanced towards the top of the hill, on the southwest of the town to reconnoiter, and finding the enemy close at hand, fired at them, striking one of them in the mouth or chin and causing him "to bleed like a pig" as one of his companions afterwards expressed it. He then retreated to the woods, the enemy following him closely and forming a line from O. C. Brown's house to William Chestnut's premises-the high ground west of where the "John Brown monument"now stands. They then fired three guns, as they afterwards stated to Robert Reynolds, one of the prisoners whom they took, as a signal to the State force to surrender.

Capt. Brown had given orders to his men not to fire a shot until he gave the orders, but when these alleged signal guns were heard, the men became so impatient, believing the enemy had opened fire upon them, that they could not be restrained. Jason Brown raised his gun to fire, and the rest under Capt. Brown's immediate command did the same, although as one of the number states,"they knew it was contrary to orders." This first attack, which was made on the right wing of the Free-state line, was partially repulse, when the enemy brought up their cannon and placed it in position within about 400 yards of the timber where Capt. Brown's men were stationed, at each successive shot moving it farther east to scour the timber.

The cannon was loaded with grape shot but did no damage, the missiles passing over the heads of the men. During this time the Free-state forces kept moving east and returning the fire of the enemy, who finally ceased firing the cannon, dismounted and made a charge in to the timber when the main body of the Free-state men, having gallantly held their ground for an hour against ten times their number, were compelled to surrender or retreat. Most of them escaped across the Marais des Cygnes, some swimming and others in a skiff. Robert Reynolds, H. K. Thomas and Charley Keiser were taken prisoners by Capt. Warren Harris, of Platte county, MO and taken under guard to the town.

While attempting to swim his horse across the river, George Partridge was shot. Samuel Wright sprang into the river on the same horse, swam across, and, by means of the bushes climbed the steep bank on the north side of the river and escaped. The Missourians, on entering the town, commenced to pillage and burn it, first firing on the block-house, in which were stationed several men, who escaped before the cannon was brought up. There were no women in town except those belonging to the families of Messrs. Chestnut and Sears. Every house but four was burned-Mr. Starkey's, Mr. Woodbury's and two small cabins. The invaders left town with twelve covered wagons, two filled with wounded men and a large part of the remainder of the plunder.

As General Reid's command approached the town in the morning, David R. Garrison and George Cutter, who remained in the house of Mr. Carr over night, attempted to escape to the timber along the Pottawatomie, and give the alarm to the town. A detail of Missourians was made to pursue them, Garrison was killed, and Cutter seriously wounded and left for dead. The invading force retired from the town about 10 o'clock a. m., taking with them as prisoners William Bainbridge Fuller, Robert Reynolds, Charley Keiser, H. K. Thomas, Mr. Morey, young Spencer Brown, who was taken prisoner at the burning of his father's house, and William Williams, from Miami Village.

Of these prisoners, Williams, formerly of Westport, Mo., which place he had been forced to leave on account of his free-state proclivities, was taken to the edge of the town site and there shot; Charley Kaiser was shot September 1-the second day following. Keiser was one of the party under Captain John Brown who captured F. N. Coleman, the murderer of Charles W. Dow, at the battle of Black Jack, and Coleman had then made threats against him. When therefore, Keiser found that Coleman was among his captors, he declared to his companions his belief that he would be killed.

The party encamped, Sunday night, on the east side of Cedar Creek, on the old Sante Fe road, and Keiser was taken out on Monday morning to a guard of Kickapoo rangers and shot. Besides the Free state losses mentioned, must be added Theron P. Powers, who was, at the time of the invasion, lying sick in a house near the timber. He crawled out of the house and into the woods for protection, and was lying there completely exhausted, when he was found by the ruffians and shot.

Among those who participated in the defense of Osawatomie were John Brown, Sr., Captain; Dr. W. W. Updegraff, Captain; --Cline, Captain; Harrison Updegraff, Charley Keiser, Cyrus Tator, George Ferris, August Bondi, Robert Eaton, George Grant, George Partridge, William Partridge, Samuel Wright, J. M. Anthony, William Quick, Hugh Kilbourn, William A. Sears, ____Mills, R. W. Wood, D. W. Collis, Capt. Holmes, H. K. Thomas, James Clark, J. J. Holbrook, Jacob Benjamin, Caleb Shearer, __Baker, __Woodbury, Henry Kilbourn, Freeman Austin, Luke Parsons.

As before stated, Frederick Brown and David Garrison were killed on the approach to the town, and George Cutter badly wounded; George Partridge and T. P. Powers were killed during the progress of the battle and the retreat; William Williams on the outskirts of the town and Charley Keiser at Cedar Creek. Dr. Updegraff and D. W. Collis were wounded. The Freeman Austin, or "Pap Austin," alluded to, was encountered on the return march of the Missourians. After burning and sacking the town, they started eastward, with the purpose of crossing the Marais des Cygnes, in the vicinity of the Emigrant Aid Company's mill. Here they encountered Austin and the "kill devil" Austin opened fire upon them, calling out "Come on boys, plenty of men here," loading and firing as rapidly as possible. Not anxious to encounter "plenty of men" Reid faced about and left Osawatomie by the way he came, crossing the Maria des Cygnes at Bundy's Ford, four miles above.

The Free-state men who escaped re-assembled at a log house north of the river, Brown and Updegraff among them. The next day they removed to the south side, and commenced fortifying another camp, but were prevented by sickness from carrying out their design.

The losses of the Missourians are not generally known--probably not much greater than those of the Free-state men. There are numerous surmises and guesses as to what those losses were; but according to Reid's own statement, it was two killed and a few wounded. The disparagement in number-ten to one - and with but eighteen of the number armed with Sharpe's rifles, was too great for Capt. Brown or any of his men to reasonably expect to win a victory, even if they had had plenty of ammunition. The most that could be done under the circumstance was to make a show of resistance, and to retreat across the Marais des Cygnes when their ammunition was exhausted, which they did.

Nothing was ever done by the Free-state forces to punish Gen. Reid for thus attacking and destroying a defenseless town, or to interrupt his return march to Missouri, except a faint feint by Gen. Lane, at which he was adept.

Quantrill, The Guerilla Leader
William Clark Quantrill, was born at Canal Dover, Ohio, July 19, 1837. His father was Thomas Quantrill, of Hagerstown, Md. His mother was a native of Chambersburg, Pa., her maiden name being Caroline Clark. These two people were married October 11, 1836, and moved to Canal Dover, in the following December. Thomas Quantrill died December 7, 1854, being at the time, principal of the Canal Dover Union Schools. Mrs. Caroline Quantrill is still living at Canal Dover, and is respected by all.

William C. Quantrill was educated at Canal Dover Union Schools, of which his father was a Director and afterwards superintendent. William C. himself became a teacher in one of the lower grades of the school in the fall of 1853. He then went to Fort Wayne and studied Latin, trigonometry, philosophy, and surveying. Early in 1856 he returned to Canal Dover, and on the 25th of February, 1857, started to Kansas with H. V. Beeson, who paid his fare to St. Louis. Here Mr. Beeson waited for Mr. Torrey, who leaving Canal Dover on the 23rd of February, had started to Kansas via New York city.

Upon Mr. Torrey's arrival at St. Louis, the party proceeded on their way to Kansas. Mr. Torrey paying Quantrill's fare the balance of the way. They arrived in Lykin's County, and settled near Stanton on the 22nd of March, each one of the three taking a claim, or rather buying a pre-emption right of a squatter, Beeson and Torrey each paying $500 for their claims, and also paying $250 for the claim standing in Quantrill's name. Some time afterwards Quantrill desired to sell out his interest in the claim; and as he and Mr. Torrey could not agree as to what was rightly due Quantrill, the matter was submitted to a "squatter's court" for arbitration.

The court decided that Beeson and Torrey owed Quantrill $63. The financial relations between Messrs. Beeson and Torrey were such that the understanding was reached between then that the latter should pay Quantrill the $63. Torrey had no money to pay with, and in order to raise the money it was necessary for him to go to Lecompton to sell some land warrants he held. On account of sickness he was unable to go to Lecompton. In consequence of this delay Quantrill became impatient, and in order to get his pay, stole a yoke of cattle belonging to Mr. Beeson.

Some few days thereafter Beeson met Quantrill about sunrise on the prairie. Quantrill turned to avoid Beeson, when the latter, bringing his rifle to bear upon the former, who was about ten rods distant, hailed him with "Bill, stop! I want to see you." Quantrill turned towards Beeson, when the latter again commanded, "Lay your gun down in the grass!' This order was also obeyed, when Beeson said, "You must bring my oxen back by three o'clock this afternoon, or I shall shoot you on sight!" Quantrill promised to return the oxen, and did so about four o'clock that day.

In the winter of 1857-58, he taught school in Judge Robert's district in Stanton Township, and in the following spring went to Salt Lake City. In 1860, he returned to Kansas, making Lawrence his headquarters, and going by the name of "Charlie Hart." While here he made frequent incursions into the country, kept bad company, gambled somewhat, and became a suspicious character. This drew upon him the surveillance of the civil authorities. Up to this time his sympathies had been with the Free-state men; but his downward course which drew upon him suspicion and surveillance, as naturally led him towards the Missourians.

In order to ingratiate himself into their affections and confidence, he conceived and carried out one of the basest betrayals of confidence known to the annals of history. He induced three or four young men, one of them a distant relative of Capt. Snyder, of Marais des Cygnes Massacre fame, to join him in robbing a Mr. Walker's house, in Jackson County, Mo. Having completed his plan for the attack, he next informed Walker that he had discovered a plat among certain parties in Kansas to rob him (Walker) of his money and slaves, and that he had joined the party for the purpose of defeating its object.

Upon approaching Walker's house at the head of his little company of dupes, they with the real purpose, he, with the pretended purpose, of robbing it, he went on ahead to "enter the house and get matters properly arranged for the attack." Upon the attack being made, he stepped to the porch and shot one of the attacking party with his own hands. All were killed but one, who severely wounded, crawled away and recovered. As a reward for this enterprise, undertaken to gain the confidence of the slaveholders of Missouri, he was presented by Walker with a magnificent horse and saddle.

Soon after this affair he came to Miami County, and stopped at the house of John Benning, near Stanton. Capt. Snyder, with a company of men surrounding Benning's house, with the purpose of taking Quantrill out and killing him for the part he had played in betraying the above mentioned young men to their death, but failed to accomplish his purpose. Snyder, however, did succeed in arresting him on a charge of grand larceny and having him confined in the Paola jail for a time. Being furnished by his friends with his pistols and bowie-knives, he made an attempt on the life of his jailor. April 2, 1861, he was released on a writ of habeas corpus. At the court house door he found his horse awaiting him, and in a few hours he was safe among his friends in Jackson County, Mo.

Accounts of his raids upon Aubrey, Olathe, Lawrence and Baxter Springs, will be found in their proper connections. This sketch may properly close with an account of his death, copied from a Louisville, Ky., paper:

"On the 1st of March, 1865, Quantrill stopped at Wakefield's barn, near Fairfield, in Nelson County, in order to find shelter from the rain, which was pouring down. His command was then reduced to fifteen men. While in the barn, and not suspecting the enemy, Capt. Ed Terrell, at the head of forty-five Federal guerrillas charged down upon him which took the whole party completely by surprise. Just as Quantrill was coming out of the door he received a mortal wound. Richard Glasscock, who had rejoined him after making his escape from Louisville, and Clark Hockersmith, while attempting to Quantrill on his horse were killed. All the balance of the guerrillas succeed in getting away.

Quantrill was left at a farm house close by and his wounds were considered of such a dangerous character, that Terrell left no guard over him. He was afterward visited by one of his own men, who endeavored to get him to escape, but he declined, saying that he knew he was mortally wounded, and desired to be left quiet. He was soon after removed to Louisville and in about a month, died of his wounds. He was generally known here in Kentucky as "Captain Clark" and that was the name he gave when he was captured. His men also created the impression through the country until after his death, when they acknowledged the "Captain Clark" was none other than Quantrill, the famous guerrilla of Missouri."

The following letter is introduced as showing that at the time it was written the writer had in him somewhat of a noble ambition.

Stanton, Kansas Territory,
February 8, 1860
My Dear Mother
It is a pleasant morning this; the sun is just rising, its light causing the trees, bushes and grass to glitter like brilliants, while the hanging sheets of frost drop from them, announcing his warmth, then silently melting away. I stood in my schoolroom door alone, and viewing this it made me feel a new life, and merry as the birds. But these feelings and thoughts are soon changed and forgotten, by the arrival of eight or ten of my scholars, who come laughing and tripping along as though their lives would always be like this beautiful morning, calm and serene. And I wish that I could always be as these children. But I have been so no doubt, and I have no reason to expect it a second time. Every year brings its changes and no two are alike.

School is now closed for the day, and I am again left alone with my thoughts. I am thinking of home and all the happy days I spent there; and then of the unhappy days I have spent since and those you have spent. In a few days it will be three years, though it only seems like a few months. The sun is shedding its last rays, and the chill of the air of evening still declares that summer has not yet arrived. Every now and then a blast from the north holds all nature in check, in spite of the warming influences of the sun to revive it.

How different now to me it is from one year ago, when I was amidst the snow-covered mountains of Utah. It seemed that a summer of sunshine would not be sufficient to break the icy fetters of winter. We should have died of ennai in the Mormon society if it had not been for the excitement attendant upon a camp of soldiers.

You perceive, I suppose, that I am writing at different time between my school hours, which causes my letter to be somewhat broken.

It is now noon, and the sun shines warm, with a pleasant south wind; and my scholars are enjoying themselves as scholars did when I was one. And they, like all children, are enjoying more happiness now than they will at any other period of their lives. I sometimes wish that I was again a scholar in the old brick schoolhouse at Dover; and again with my companions on the playground. But scholars and companions are far from me now, and I am left alone to contemplate. It all seems to me but a dream, a very little of which I ever realized; or, more like a sheet of paper on the first page of which there are a few signs, showing that something has commenced, and then all the rest left blank, telling you not what was the purpose of the writer, and leaving you to surmise; though if it had been continued it might have been of benefit to some one. Thus my mind is ever recalling the past, and my conscience tells me that if something noble is not done in the future to fill up this blank, then it had better be destroyed, so that none may take it for an example.

But as this is leap year, I think it advisable for those who intend to turn over a new leaf, to take their leap with the year, and then keep moving with it, and then probably they may have something more than a blank. I think I can insure it if there is a firm resolution.

I can now see more clearly than ever in my life before, that I have been striving and working really without any end in view. And now since I am satisfied that such a course must end in nothing, it must be changed, and that soon, or it will be too late. All the benefit that I can see I have derived from my past course, is that I have improved my health materially, which was none of the best when I came here. I have also learned to do almost any kind of outdoor work which experience will serve in the future to preserve my health, and also enable me to get along much better than if I was only fitted for the schoolroom or other indoor business.

When my school if finished, I will be able to tell you better what my plans are for the coming year. One thing is certain: I am done roving around seeking a fortune, for I have found where it may be obtained by being steady and industrious. And now that I have sown wild oats so long, I think it is time to begin harvesting; which will only be accomplished by putting in a different crop in different soil.

There is no news here but hard times, and harder still coming, for I see their shadows; and "coming events cast their shadows before" is an old proverb. But I do not fear that my destiny is fixed in this country, nor do I wish to be compelled to stay in it any longer than possible, for the devil has got unlimited sway over this territory, and will hold it until we have a better set of men and society generally. The only cry is :"What is best for ourselves and our dear friends".

I suppose Dover has changed a great deal since I was there, but no more than I have, and probably not as much; for I think there are few there who would know me if I were to come unexpectedly. I suppose the boys have grown to be almost men and likely I should hardly recognize them if I were to see them any place but home. Well, surely I have changed around a great deal the last three years, and have seen a great many people and countries, and enough incidence to make a novel of adventures.

When I get a letter from you, and some of the others, I will write again, but now I must close, hoping that this bit of scribbling may find you in as good health as the one who is writing. My love to you all, and respects to those who inquire of me.

Your son,
W. C. Quantrill
To Mrs. Caroline Quantrill, Dover, Tuscarawas County, Ohio

The Origin of the Name--Since this epithet has become synonymous with Kansan, its origin is a question in which all Kansans are interested. the following, is the true story of its origin:

Before sunrise, one morning in the autumn of 1856, during the existence of the troubles throughout the State, Pat Devlin, a noted character of those times, was seen entering the village of Osawatomie, riding a horse or mule laden with no inconsiderable amount of articles of various kinds, and of different degrees of value. The animal Pat bestrode was almost hidden from sight by the load. A neighbor meeting him said:

"Good morning, Pat; you look as if you had been out on some kind of a foraging expedition."

"Yes," said Pat. "I've been out jayhawking..."

"What do you mean by 'jayhawking,' Pat? I never heard that word before."

Pat, who was a bold Free-state irishman, at once developed into an etymological neologist, and replied:

"I have been out foraging off the enemy," meaning the Pro-slavery party, and while riding home on me baste, I bethought me of the bird we have in Ireland, we call the jayhawk, which takes delight in worryin' its prey before devouring it and I thought 'jayhawking' a good name for the business I was in meself."

The word became generally known during the War of the Rebellion from the application of it to himself and his soldiers by Col. Jennison of the Seventh Kansas. From his regiment it passed to all Kansas soldiers and finally was applied to all the inhabitants of Kansas themselves.

Pat Devlin, the originator of the term "jayhawking" was killed in the fall of 1860, in Aurora, Col. And it is a remarkable coincidence that "Marshall Cleveland," the last and by no means the least of the "jayhawkers" should have been killed on almost the exact spot where the name originated. Marshall Cleveland was known at different times by different aliases. His real name was Metz, and he came to Kansas from Ohio. He was a man of commanding stature, tall and muscular, and brave to a fault.

He first made his appearance on the border in 1861, as one of Jennison's jayhawkers. On the 14th of October, he was mustered in as Captain of Company H, Seventh Cavalry, but unable to bear the restraints of army life, he resigned his commission November 1st. Gathering about him a number of men of his own class, he commenced a course of robbery and plunder in the name of "Liberty." Having stolen $125 from H. L. Lyons and considerable property from Joseph and John Beets, himself and two of his confederates, named respectively "Buckskin" and "Rabbit Ear" were indicted for robbery at the March term of the district court.

A State warrant was issued for Cleveland, and the sheriff made several ineffectual attempts to arrest him. He laughed at the civil authorities and defied the military. He was declared an outlaw and Capt. H. S. Greeno, Company C, Sixth Kansas Cavalry, in command at Paola, sent out two soldiers in citizens' clothing, to ascertain his whereabouts. On the 10th of May they found him at the Geer Hotel in Osawatomie. On the same day the Sheriff attempted to arrest him, but failed to procure a posse equal to the task.

Capt. Greeno proceeded to Osawatomie in the night. Approaching the town he picketed the roads with a portion of his forces under Sergeant Morris. As daylight approached Sergeant Mooris drew in his men, surrounded the Geer Hotel, and before Capt. Greeno reached the hotel, had received Cleveland's surrender. Cleveland being allowed to dress and come out of the house, sprang upon his horse, which some friend had brought him, broke through the guards and dashed off in the direction of the Pottawatomie, followed by the whole command.

Capt Greeno and Private John Johnson, being finely mounted, rapidly gained upon the outlaw, and when within range were fired upon by him several times. On arriving at the bank of the creek he dismounted and ran down the steep bank. Johnson also dismounted and approaching the bank, fired a fatal shot at Cleveland from above. He was buried in the Osawatomie cemetery and some time afterwards his "wife" caused to be erected at the head of his grave a monument bearing the following inscription:

May 11, 1862
Earth counts a mortal less
Heaven an angel more

This is not so much "a new departure in gravestone literature," as it is considered by an excellent local historian as it is an apotheosis inspired by a woman's love.

The Execution of Tator
Early in the summer of 1863, a tragedy was enacted below the city (Omaha), the facts of which are as follows:

On Friday, June 19, the dead body of an unknown man was found in the bend of the river opposite Sulphur Springs, about three miles below Omaha. He had evidently been murdered and thrown into the river, and for some days no one could be found to identify the deceased. Finally he was recognized as Isaac H. Neff, an emigrant who, in company with Cyrus Tator, was journeying West, and had encamped near a place known as the "Saratoga Springs" in the vicinity of which his remains were discovered.

A combination of circumstances led the authorities to suspect Cyrus Tator of the murder and resulted in his arrest, while he was making preparations to escape. He was arraigned for trial before W. P. Kellogg, Judge of the District Court, at the June term thereof. Charles H. Brown, Prosecuting Attorney, with W. A. Little and A. G. Poppleton, counsel for the defense. The examination continued several days, resulting in the conviction of Tator of murder, and his sentence to be hanged, the latter event fixed for August 21, 1863, or two months almost to the day, from the date of the commission of the crime.

Exceptions were taken to the rulings of the Court during the trial, which were over-ruled, a write of error denied by the Supreme Courts, and the accused hanged on Friday, August 21, 1863, on the very spot where his crime had been committed. Before the fatal knot was adjusted, Tator called God to witness that he was an innocent man; that he had not murdered Isaac H. Neff and was ignorant of the author of the deed. The trap door of the scaffold was sprung at 1 o'clock precisely, and Tator was launched into eternity. He died almost immediately and after hanging twenty-two minutes his body was lowered, placed in a coffin, and awaited the demands of the his friends. He left a wife and child.

An Attempt to Rescue a Fugitive Slave
The following incident is given as illustrative of the attitude of the Free state men assumed toward Slavery and the laws designed for its protection. It was in the fall of 1858. The postoffice at Mound City, Linn County, had been robbed, and Cyrus Shaw, of Paola, was requested by the postmaster at Westport to go down to Mound City with the necessary blanks, affidavits, etc., for the postmaster there to sign in order to satisfy the Department it was a case of robbery. On his way down, when in the northern part of Linn County, he met three Missourians.

As was customary with them in those days, they inquired of him where he was going, and what his business was. Mr. Shaw gave such answers as seemed to him to suit the occasion and at last took a small flask of whisky out of an inside pocket, of which he invited his Missouri friends to partake. Up to this time they suspected Mr. Shaw of being a Free state man, which in fact he was; but at the sight of the whisky they were instantly reassured, and one of them swinging his arm shouted out:"Oh, by G-d, boys, he's all right, he's all right," thus unwittingly paying a handsome compliment to Free-state men. To drink whisky was one of the characteristic virtues of a Border ruffian. They then informed Mr. Shaw of the object of their visit to Kansas. One of them had lost a slave, and the slave was suppose to be near Osawatomie. Mr. Shaw, desirous of closing the interview as early as practicable, assented to the possibility of their surmise being correct, and soon each party was pursuing its respective journey.

The slave-hunting party upon arriving in the neighborhood of Osawatomie, discovered the hiding-place of the fugitive, and informed an old and trusted Missouri friend residing there, of the object of their mission. Suspicion was in some way excited in the minds of the Free-state men as to what that object was. Several members of the Underground Railway Company were immediately notified of the interesting condition of affairs. They promptly rallied their forces, proceeded at once to where the fugitive slave was staying and took him directly to his master at the house of the latter's Missouri friend.

To the great surprise of the master, the slave was brought in and introduced to him. The object of the call and introduction was not, however, for the purpose of surrendering up the fugitive, as the master, his companions from Missouri and his resident Missouri friend very quickly discovered; but it was to inform them in the first place that the Dred Scott decision was null and void in Kansas and that the soil of Kansas should not be made the hunting ground for the slave owner; and in the second place, that the owner of this slave should aid him on his way to Canada instead of taking him back to Missouri.

Accordingly the master was compelled to hand over his former "chattel" his overcoat, undercoat and vest, next his pocket-book, from which about $300 was taken, then he was obliged to exchange his pantaloons for those of the negro and then off came a fine pair of boots, which were also involuntarily exchanged for an old pare the negro had on. The negro was then asked by Captain Snyder, who was in charge of the affairs of the Underground Railway Company just at this time, if there was anything else he would need on his trip to Canada, to which "Washington" replied that his old hat did not correspond well with the rest of his suit, and upon being instructed by his liberators to do so, he selected from the head of one of his pursuers a fine silk stove-pipe hat, which added very much to the dignity of his person.

He was then told to go to the stable and select a horse, saddle and bridle belonging to the slave-hunters, with which he could pursue his journey to Canada with celerity and comfort. Thus equipped, thanking his friends for their timely and kindly assistance, he resumed his journey toward Freedom, while his pursuers, crest-fallen, poorer and much wiser men, retraced their steps to Missouri to relate the story of their wrongs, and to dilate upon the utter disregard of the rights of property manifested by the "jayhawkers" of Kansas.

Political History
On the 16th Of April 1856, a meeting was held at Osawatomie, at which resolutions were adopted against the payment of taxes assessed under the Bogus Laws. At this meeting, John Brown, Sr., made a speech. At the term of court for the Second Judicial District which began at Paola on the 27th of May, a grand jury was impanelled and an indictment found against John Brown Sr., John Brown Jr., O. C. Brown, O. V. Dayton, Alexander Gardner, Richard Mendenhall, Charles A. Foster, Charles H. Crane, William Partridge, and William Chestnut, in which it charged that they "did unlawfully, and wickedly conspire, combine, confederate and agree together to resist the enforcement of the laws passed by the Legislature for the collection of taxes."

After the Pottawatomie tragedy, companies of militia from Lykins and Linn counties, under command of Maj. Gen. Coffey, went to the scene of the murders and gave the bodies of the victims as decent internment as was possible under the circumstances. On the return march a number of prominent Free-state men, were taken prisoners. Against none of them, however, was made any charge of participation in the massacre, with the possible exception of John Brown, Jr., and it is certain that he was with his company in camp near Capt. Shore's in the northern part of Franklin County at the time.

The prisoners arrested were taken to Paola during the term of court mentioned above, and all but eight discharged. Among these eight were: John Brown, Jr., Jason Brown, H. H. Williams, William Partridge, Hugh Kilbourn and James Townsley. They were taken from Paola to Osawatomie and placed in custody of a company of United States dragoons, who treated them with considerable severity. The charge against them was that they were guilty of "high treason". After having been alternately in the hands of the United States troops and the Marshal's posse, until November, most of them were discharged at Lecompton by Judge Lecompte. As showing what was required to constitute "high treason" in Kansas in those days, it may be stated that the basis of the charge against H. H. Williams consisted in his having been elected a member of the Free-state legislature, and Captain of the Pottawatomie Rifle Company.

Partridge, Townsley, and Kilbourn were held for some time after the others were released. Kilbourn had been sentenced to twelve months confinement for stealing a horse or two from a band of Missourians who a few days before had burned his house and robbed him of all he possessed. Townsley was charged with having participated in the Pottawatomie tragedy. Partridge was charged with having bought a stolen wagon, with grand larceny and with conspiracy against the Territorial laws. He had a trial on the second charge on the 16th of December before Judge Cato. His lawyer was Johnson of Leavenworth, commonly called "red-eyed Johnson" a strict Pro slavery man.

Johnson told the prosecuting attorney all the points in Partridge's defense and then left his client and the town. Judge Cato forced Partridge to an immense trial, giving him no time to produce witnesses or to procure other counsel. The jury was packed to suit the judge, as many Free-state men put on as could be thrown off by preemptory challenges, and several Pro-slavery men kept on who admitted in court that they had already formed an opinion as to the guilt or innocence of the prisoner. About this time, Col Johnson, of Kansas City, and M. J. Parrott happened to come into the court room.

Several witnesses were introduced, but, with one exception, none of them knew of Partridge ever having committed any crime. This one, a Mrs. Totten, testified that he had once passed her house, stopping in the road to view it a moment, then going on; and that a another time he had come into the house at night and inquired for Mr. Totten. Upon being informed that Mr. Totten was not at home he remarked that it was d--d strange. This was the sum total of the evidence adduced against him; yet it was sufficient to prove to the unbiased and intelligent jury before which he was tried the guilt of grand larceny; and of grand larceny he was convicted. The astute and righteous judge as a fitting climax to the farce of a trial, sentenced him to ten years imprisonment! So enraged at this result was Col. Johnson that he commenced cursing the court, jury and all concerned, declaring that all had been done through bribery from beginning to end. Even "Postscripts Donaldson" declared it a "damnable outrage and deserving of sever punishment."

Below is a copy of the indictment against Partridge for "conspiracy". It is a great document and shows what a man can do when he "combines, confederates and agrees together," and aids himself.

Territory of Kansas County of Lykins,

"In the United States Court of the Second Judicial District setting in and for the county of Lykins and territory of Kansas, May term, A. D., 1856, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six.

The grand jurors summoned, empanelled and sworn to inquire in and for the body of Lykins County in the Territory of Kansas, on their oaths present that William Partridge, late of said county, being persons of evil minds and dispositions, on the (16th) sixteenth day of April, 1856. Eighteen hundred and fifty-six, and on divers other days and times both before and after that day, in the County of Lykins and Territory aforesaid, did unlawfully and wickedly conspire, combine confederate and agree together mutually to aid, support one another in a forcible resistance to the enactment of the laws passed by the legislature of the said Territory of Kansas be the attempts to enforce said enactment come from--what source it may--and the grand Jurors aforesaid do further present on their oaths aforesaid that the said William Partridge, of said county, on the sixteenth day of April, 1856, and on divers other days and times both before and after that day in the county aforesaid did unlawfully and wickedly conspire, combine, confederate and agree together, forcibly to resist and oppose the assessions and collection of taxes in and for the county and territory aforesaid and to use all the means and force necessary to prevent the execution of the law of said territory authorizing the assessment and collection of taxes to the evil example of all others, and against the peace and dignity of the Territory of Kansas.

William Barber
Pros. Atty. Pro Tem"

After receiving his sentence, Partridge was taken from the Tecumseh jail and turned over to the master of convicts, Capt. Hampton, at Lecompton. On the 15th of January following, he together with Cushing and another Free-state convict made good their escape.

Gov. Geary had said that Partridge "was one of the worst men and one of the principal agitators in Kansas, and should receive no sympathy from him;" but afterward saw cause to change his opinion, and was very desirous to have him return that he might be reprieved and "be at liberty with none to molest him." He was a brother of George Partridge, killed at the battle of Osawatomie.

With regard to young Kilbourn, it may be added, in explanation of the charge against him of horse-stealing:--During the latter part of August, 1856, the Missourians burned the house and barn of Hugh Kilbourn, among others, on Pottawatomie Creek, destroying and driving off everything he had. In the company with several others, Henry Kilbourn, son of Hugh, followed the invaders to the west line of Missouri and took property enough from them to partially cover his father's loss. He was arrested, brought into court and sentenced to one year's solitary confinement in the county jail.

The organization of the Republican Party in Kansas, occurred on the 18 of May, 1859, at Osawatomie. It was the most notable and important political event of the year. The Convention was called to order by T. D. Thacher of Lawrence; Henry Fox, of Shawnee County was elected temporary chairman, and T. D. Thacher, Secretary. The following was the Committee on Credentials: E. Heath, A. Danford, P. Shepard, James L. McDowell, John A. Martin, William Spriggs, and A. J. Shannon. The Committee on permanent organization, consisting of Branscomb, Fearl, Lawrence, Fletcher, Delahay, McKay, Larzelere, Rapp, Burnett, Pomeroy, Gilpatrick and Shannon, reported as follows; President, O. E. Learnard; Vice-Presidents Nathan Price, S. C. Pomeroy, Thomas Ewing, Jr., Joseph Speck, E. Heath, Henry Fox, D. W. Houston and E. G. Jewell; Secretaries D. W. Wilder, T. D. Thacher, J. F. Cummings and John A., Martin.

After the organization was effected, the Convention was addressed by Horace Greeley, one of the purest and noblest of American statesmen. In the course of his address, Mr. Greeley was made the following allusion to the first martyr President; "the able and gallant Lincoln, of Illinois, whom we had hoped to meet and hear today, has happily illustrated the Squatter Sovereignty principle, thus: If A. wants to make B. a slave, C. must not interfere to prevent him."

Mr. Greeley, closed with the following grand and prophetic peroration:

"Freemen of Kansas! I would inspire you with no unwarranted, no overweening confidence of success in the great struggle directed before us. I have passed the age of illusions and no longer presume a party or cause destined to triumph merely because I know it should. On the contrary, when I consider how vast are the interests and influence combined to defeat us__the Three Thousand Millions of property in human flesh and blood__the subserviency of commerce to this great source of custom and profit__the prevalence of ignorance and of selfishness affecting the many millions prodigally lavished by the wielders of Federal authority-the lust of office and the prevalence of corruption-I often regard the struggle of 1860, with less of hope than of apprehension. Yet, when I think of the steady diffusion of intelligence, the manifest antagonism between the Slavery extensionists and the interest of free Labor--when I consider how vital and imminent is the necessity for the passage of the free Land bill-- when I feel how the very air of the Nineteenth Century vibrates to the pulsations of the great heart of Humanity, beating higher and higher with aspirations for Universal freedom, until even the barbarous Russia is intent on striking off the shackles of her fettered millions. I cannot repress the hope that we are on the eve of a grand beneficent victory. But whether destined to be waved in triumph over our next great battle-field, or trodden into the mire through our defeat, I entreat you to keep the Republican flag flying in Kansas, so long as one man can anywhere be rallied to defend it. Defile not the glorious dust of the martyred dead whose freshly grassed graves lie thickly around us, by trailing that flag in dishonor or folding it cowardly despair on this soil so lately reddened by their patriotic blood. If it be destined in the mysterious Providence of God, to go down, let the sunlight which falls lovingly on their graves catch the last defiant wave of its folds in the free breeze which sweeps over these prairies; let it be burned, not surrendered, when no one remains to uphold it, and let its ashes rest forever with theirs by the banks of the Marais des Cygnes."

War Record
Company D, of the Tenth Regiment, was raised mainly in Miami County. Of this company Eli Snyder, of Osawatomie, was mustered in as Captain, and resigned May 27, 1862. He was followed by John Downing, of New Lancaster, George D. Brooks, of Kansas City, and F. A. Smalley, of Osawatomie, were successively, First Lieutenants, and F. A. Smalley and R. W. Wood, of Osawatomie, Second Lieutenants.

The Twelfth Regiment of Infantry was mustered in at Paola, September 30, 1862, and mustered out at Little Rock, Ark., June 30, 1865. Its Colonel was Charles W. Adams, of Lawrence, who was promoted Brevet Brigadier General, February 13, 1865; Lieutenant Colonel Josiah E. Hayes, Olathe. Companies C and D were recruited principally in Miami County. Nick L. Beuter, was Captain of Company C. After the assassination of Captain Beuter, April 2, 1864, at Hot Springs, Ark., by bushwackers, First Lieutenant William O. Hubbell, of Paola, was promoted Captain, July 19. After William O. Hubbell, William R. Nichols, of Stanton, and William A. Wells, of Osage, were successively, First Lieutenants of Company C, and William B. Nichols and Samuel S. Kirkham, of Paola, Second Lieutenants.

Of Company D, George W. Ashby, of Prairie City, was Captain, mustered in September 25, 1862 and resigned May 29, 1865. Henry Shively, of Stanton, and Alferd Johnson of Peoria, were successively, First Lieutenants; and Alfred Johnson, and William H. Baker, of Berea, Second Lieutenants.

Company F, of the Fourteenth Regiment Cavalry, was raised mainly in Miami County. Of this company, Albert J. Briggs, of Paola, was mustered in as Captain, August 26, 1863 and promoted Major, June 3, 1865. The next day John A. Huff, of Paola, who was mustered in as First Lieutenant, August 26, 111863, was promoted Captain, and William D. Parish, Second Lieutenant, was promoted First Lieutenant, June 7.

Company C, Fifteenth Regiment Cavalry, was raised partly in Miami County. Benjamin F. Simpson, of Paola, was mustered in as Captain of this company, October 6, 1863 and promoted Major, June 7, 1865. James H. Young, of Olathe succeeded as Captain. Joseph Phillips, of Paola, and John Murphy were successively First Lieutenants of this company, and Isom Smith, of Rising Sun, and Ralph J. Farnsworth, of Paola, Second Lieutenants.

Miami County suffered, perhaps less than some other border counties from rebel raids during the war. The most important incident was the passing of Quantrill through the county within two miles of Paola on the afternoon and night of the 21st of August, after the massacre and burning of Lawrence. Upon learning of his approach, measures for defense were speedily taken. A force was speedily organized under command of Major B. F. Simpson, afterwards of the famous Fifteenth Regiment who, at the time, was at home recruiting soldiers, and stationed in ambuscade on the Stanton road, to await the approach of Quantrill and his men.

Quantrill, becoming aware of the preparations for his reception, turned northward, when two miles west of town, crossed Walnut Creek, and proceeding northeastwardly, camped on the west side of Bull Creek, near Rock Ford, five miles north of Paola. Col. Plumb had been following Quantrill from the vicinity of Lawrence, all day, and, missing his trail, came upon Major Simpson's ambuscade about dusk, his horses, upon reaching Bull Creek, rushing down into it to quench their famishing thirst. Had not Major Simpson fortunately recognized Col. Plumb's voice, it is probable that the latter's men would have been badly cut to pieces, by the former's mistaking them for Quantrill's.

Quantrill's camp was discovered some time before midnight. A plan of attack was drawn up and men and officers were eager to carry it into effect, but Col. Clark, the ranking officer, declined to give the order to advance. Capt. Nick L. Beuter, Company C, Twelfth Kansas Infantry, arrived at Paola about midnight, by forced march from West Point, Mo. He immediately reported to Col. Clark, and, with Major Simpson, asked for orders to advance on Quantrill. Such orders being withheld, he then asked permission to take his own Company C, and make the attack. This being refused, no further attempt was made, until Quantrill had left his camp on Bull Creek and taken up his march for Missouri. Then only a few of his stragglers were overtaken and killed.

It is safe to assume that had a brave and efficient officer been in command at Paola on the night of the 21st of August, 1863, and one having his heart in his work, Quantrill and his whole band of murderous ruffians would have been intercepted and slain, with "no quarter" for the battle cry, and thus been made to pay the just penalty of the diabolism in Lawrence in the morning of that ever-memorable day. Had Capt Beuter been in command this consumption, then so devoutly to be wished, would have been accomplished. E. W. Robinson, in his history on Miami County, pays the following tribute to brave Capt. Beuter:

"He was the very man to fight Quantrill - he was a 'model soldier of the Republic', and the brave men he commanded, many of whom are yet residents of the county, hold dear the memory and deeds of their vigilant, active and faithful Captain, who sleeps well his last sleep in ground returned to and retained in the Union by the patriotic self-sacrifice of Nick L. Beuter, and thousands, who like him, fought treason to its overthrow, and re-established the authority of the Government at the expense of life itself. Capt Beuter, while acting in the capacity of Assistant Adjutant-General, Second Brigade, Seventh Army Corps, was assassinated while in the discharge of his official duty. He died a hero, with his armour on. His remains were buried on a round mound, six miles north of Hot Springs, Arkansas, on the 3rd of April, 1864."

On account of what seemed to many citizens of Kansas, inefficiency on the part of the Generals commanding on the border at the time, and smarting under the escape of Quantrill, a convention assembled at Paola, of which T. A. Osborn was President, which adopted resolutions asking for the removal of Generals Schofield and Ewing, and the establishment of a new military department. It would appear, however, that this convention were in a predicament very similar to that occupied by Mr. Lincoln, as described by himself, when he apologized to an applicant passing though the lines, for not granting the pass, by saying that he "had very little influence with the administration."

County Organization and Buildings
Lykins County (now Miami) was organized by the Legislature, elected March 30, 1855, and named in honor of Dr. Lykins, the oldest white resident of the county. At that election, Dr. Lykins and A. M. Coffey were elected to the Council, and W. A. Heiskell, Allen Wilkenson, Henry Younger and Samuel Scott, all Pro-slavery, were elected to the House of Representatives. Dr. Lykins was a well educated physician, and from 1844 to 1861, had charge of the Mission School, one mile east of Paola. In the latter year he removed to Colorado, and died on his arrival at Denver.

Miami County Civil List-State Senators-With date of election - J. H. Phillips, 1859; Thomas Roberts, 1861; Johnson Clark, 1862; G. A. Colton, 1864; David Anderson, 1866; H. H. Williams, 1868; E. H. Topping, 1870 and 1872; William Jones, 1874; B. F. Simpson, 1876; Leonard Bradbury, 1880.

Members of the House of Representives-With date of election - A. Ellis, G. A. Colton, 1859; G. W. Miller, B. F. Simpson, 1860; W. R. Wagstaff, H. Rice, 1861; I. Christie, A. Ellis, L. C. Connery, 1862; William Chestnut, T. H. Ellis, W. G. McCulloch, 1863; H. Updegraff, J. A. Kendall, William Huffman, 1866; H. H. Williams, J. W. Gossett, William Huffman, 1867; W. Hyner,-Taylor, H. B. Smith, 1868; Reuben Smith, E. H. Topping, E. W. Green, 1869; H. B. Smith, B. F. Simpson, J. M. Carpenter, 1870; J. W. Beaty, Reuben Smith, 1872; J. C. Carey, M. Finkham, 1873; T. E. Smith, F. M. Fain, 1874; Eli Davis, J. C. Nichols, 1875; Eli Davis, L. Hendrickson, G. F. Tracey, 1876; J. W. Games, James Martin, H. Rice, 1878; J. W. Games, henry Post, and H. Rice, 1880.

Judge of District Court-With date of election - Hiram Stevens, 1869; W. R. Wagstaff, 1881.

United States Marshall-With date of appointment - B. F. Simpson, 1879.

County Commissioners - When the county organization was first elected the body corresponding to the present Board of County Commissioners consisted of the Probate Judge and two Commissioners. The first Board, according to the records still preserved, held its first meeting April 2, 1857, and consisted of A. H. McFadin, Probate Judge, and James Beets and L. D. Williams, "gentlemen Commissioners."Previously Isaac Jacobs was Probate Judge; and subsequently Cyrus Tator in 1858. The county was then governed by a Board of Supervisors, one from each township, until 1860, when the County Commissioner system was established. The first meeting was held April 2, 1860, and the first Board consisted of Israel Christie, John M. Ellis and R. W. Shipley, elected March 26. The following is the list to the present time, with date of election: Israel Christie, J. H. Benson, John Dodd, November 6, 1860; Nick L. Beuter, Israel Christie, John M. Roberts, 1861; J. M. Walthall, J. R. Chandler, Samuel Dale, 1862; J. H. Pratt, W. Hymer, Robert Lapsley, 1863; H. Rice, W. Hymer, H. O. Peery, 1865; John Tontz, Cyrus Shaw, H. Rice, 1867; John Tontz, Cyrus Shaw, C. Barnard, 1869; C. M. Dickson, G. E. DeForest, Israel Christie, 1871; P. F. Latimer, S. P. Boone, J. H. Martin, 1873; P. F. Latimer, S. P. Boone, William McConner, 1875; Z. Hayes, William Rogers, L. Hamlin, 1877; J. A. Payne, 1879; W. L. Beck, 1880; T. B. Robinson, 1881.

County Assessor-With date of election - Richard Mendenhall, 1857; W. T. Shively, March, 1860; William Tharp, November, 1860; W. G. McCullough, 1861; James Burney, 1862 and 1863; W. Stockwell, 1864; George Roberts, 1865 and 1866, W. H. Standiford, 1867; T. J. Cummins, 1868, when the office was abolished.

County Clerk - W. A. Heiskel, 1856; E. W. Robinson, 1857; Daniel Childs 1861; G. W. Warren, 1869; Charles H. Giller, 1873; B. J. Sheridan, 1877; J. C. Taylor, 1881.

Clerk of the District Court - L. McArthur, E. W. Robinson, J. B. Hobson, D. B. Wilson, 1860; H. B. Smith, 1861; George Roberts, 1862; I. J. Banister, 1863; Thomas Roberts, 1864; L. J. Banister, 1866; J. S. Beeson, 1869; J. E. Wallace, 1874; E. M. Wickersham, 1876, present incumbent.

Probate Judge - Isaac Jacobs, A. H. McFadin, Cyrus Tator, G. A. Colton; D. B. Wilson, 1862; Joshua Clayton, 1868; E. W. Robinson, 1872, incumbent.

Sheriff - R. P. Campbell, A. J. Henson, H. H. Williams; W. P. Dutton, 1861; W. G. Rainey, 1865; D. Anderson, 1869; William Weaver, 1873; John Howard, 1875; A. W. Long, 1879.

Register of Deeds - W. A. Heiskel, E. W. Robinson, A. J. Shannon; W. T. Shively, 1861; J. L. J. Chandler, 1865; L. C. Crittenden, 1869; John A. Welles, 1873; Eli Chandler, 1875; S. Underhill, 1877; C. C. Proctor, 1881.

Treasurer - Allen T. Ward, 1857; Cyrus Shaw, 1859; W. P. Dutton, 1860; W. J. McCown, 1861; J. H. Phillips, 1862; William T. Shively, 1863; Thomas Akers, 1864; J. T. Haughey, 1865; William Crowell, 1869; G. E. DeForest, 1873; S. R. Smith, 1875; J. A. Miller, 1879.

Surveyor - N. J. Roscoe, 1857; James Mitchell, 1858; Samuel D. Irwin, 1861; A. S. Barnum, 1863; N. S. Roscoe, 1867; O. W. Bates, 1873; A. Knapp, 1875; A. P. Walker, 1879.

Superintendent of Instruction - H. M. Hughes, Abram Ellis, A. A. Roberts, 1861; I. J. Banister, 1862; S. Underhill, 1863; John Welles, 1866; I. J. Banister, 1867; A. C. Farnham, 1870; I. J. Banister, 1872; B. D. Russell, 1874; J. W. Flemming, 1878; S. F. March, 1880.

Coroner - Cyrus Holdridge, 1857; C. O. Gause, 1859; P. P. Fowler, 1861; D. E. Stephens, 1863; John Austin, 1865; W. D. Hawkins, 1866; R. P. Lummis, 1867; J. M. Carpenter, 1869; T. Dennis, 1870; William Waters, 1873; W. H. Wilhoite, 1875; R. J. Hiner, 1877; Amos Potter, 1879.

County Attorney - B. F. Simpson, S. A. Riggs, R. W. Massey, John M. Coe, Thomas Roberts, 1865; E. F. Smith, 1868; A. C. Potter, 1870; A. C. Potter, 1871; W. T. Johnston, 1873; W. R. Brayman, 1876; W. T. Johnston, 1878; J. A. Hoag, 1880.

Court House - The first steps looking towards the erection of a court house were taken July 29, 1857, when it was ordered by the Commissioners that "the sum of $15,000 be appropriated to build a court house at Paola, that the bonds of the county bearing ten per cent, interest be issued and that they shall not be sold at less than par". The bonds were not issued, nor has the court house been built. On the 10th of April, 1862, the Board paid $800 for "Union Hall" to be used as a court house. After using the second story of the "Rainey Block" some years for county offices, the Commissioners, on May 8, 1876, leased the old "Paola school building" for a court house, and on the 7th of November, following, a vote was had on the purchase of the building which resulted in the casting of 1,872 votes in favor of the purchase, to 307 against it. Total amount paid for the building $9,200.

Elections and Land Sales
The first election held in the county was for members of the Council and House of representatives, March 30, 1855. Most of Lykins County was included in Bull Creek Precinct of the Fifth District, and the election was held at the house of Baptiste Peoria, about twenty rods west of the present location of the Normal school, Paola. The judges of election, appointed by Gov. Reeder, were: John J. Parks, J. J. Clark and Stephen White; those who acted were Parks, Payne and B. C. Westfall, and they were not sworn.

Most of the voters came from Missouri the few days before for the purpose of voting. They were all heavily armed and asserted that if any one attempted to prevent them from voting, they would "assert their rights and vote anyhow". Samuel Wade, from near Santa Fe, Mo., after voting for himself, voted for his son, Jim Wade, a boy about ten years old, saying, in explanation, that he had taken a claim for him, on Bull Creek, and that he expected Jimmy would become a resident of the Territory and a voter.

For the sake of effect the judges asked several persons if they were willing to be sworn that they were residents of the Territory, at which they would pretend to get angry, threaten to whip the judges and refuse to be sworn. The matter, however, was understood and arranged beforehand. the result of the election was that the Pro-slavery candidates were elected by a vote of 377, to nine for the Free state candidates. At the time there were twenty legal voters in the precinct, but as the Missourians were well armed, under the influence of whiskey all day and very threatening, some of the Free state men did not vote. The Free state candidates for the Council were M. G. Morris and James P. Fox; for the House, John Serpell, Adam Pore, S. H. Houser and Samuel Jennings.

On October 1, 1855, an election was held for a delegate to Congress. J. W. Whitfield was the Pro-slavery candidate, and in the Paola precinct received 220 votes. At the time there were seventy legal voters residing in the precinct, hence 150 illegal votes were cast. The Free state men took no part in the election.

On the 9th of the same month an election was held for delegates to the Topeka Constitutional Convention, and for a delegate to Congress. Osawatomie precinct cast 67 votes and Stanton 35. The delegates elected from the Fifth District, of which Lykins County formed a part, were William Turner, James M. McArthur, W. T. Morris, Orville C. Brown, Richard Knight, Fred Brown, H. Smith, and Wm. S. Nichols. A. H. Reeder received 44 votes in Stanton and 74 in Osawatomie. At this election the Pro-slavery men took no part.

On the 15th of December an election was held on the adoption of the Topeka Constitution. Stanton cast 32 votes for the Constitution; Osawatomie 56 for and 1 against it. At the same time Stanton cast 33 votes for, to 5 against and Osawatomie 38 for to 17 against the exclusion of negroes and mulattoes. On the 15th of January, 1856, an election was held for the election of State officers and members of the general assembly of the State. Osawatomie cast 82 and Stanton 31 votes.

At the election of October 6, 1856, for delegate to Congress, J. W. Whitfield received 133 votes in Lykins County, Martin White and J. P. Fox receiving respectively, 127 and 105 votes for representatives in the Territorial Legislature. The Free- state men did not vote.

At the election of June 15, the next year, Lykins County cast 58 votes for delegates to the LeCompton Constitutional Convention, electing David Lykins, Wm. A. Heiskell, Henry T. Lyons and J. T. Bradford as members. According to the census taken prior to this election, the county contained 1, 352 inhabitants and 413 legal voters.

August 9, 1857, at the election for officers under the Topeka Constitution, there were cast in Lykins County for Rev. S. L. Adair for Senator, 269 votes; for representatives J. W. Stewart received 427 votes and E. W. Robinson 417. At the election of October 5, when the two parties in Kansas for the first time measured their strength, Lykins County cast for the Free-state candidates for the Territorial Legislature, 348 votes; for the Democratic, 59 electing A. J. Shannon and John Hanna to the House and M. B. Standiford to the Council.

A vote was taken on the Lecompton Constitution, and for officers under it, December 21, 1857. Lykins County cast 81 votes for the Constitution with slavery and 12 for without slavery; and 517 votes on Governor. H. H. Williams was elected senator and Charles A. Foster, Representative. A second election was held January 4, 1858, on the Lecompton Constitution, at which time Lykins County cast 358 votes against it, 1 vote for it with slavery and 1 for it without slavery. On January 26, David Sibett was elected to the Council to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Hon. H. B. Standiford, which occurred January 3. On the 15th of February, Charles A. Foster, G. A. Colton, Thomas Roberts and A. Knapp were elected delegates to the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention. This convention met at Minneola, March 23, and adjourned to Leavenworth on the 24th.

August 2, a vote was taken on the English Bill. Lykins gave 99 votes for it and 440 against it. At the territorial election held October 4, M. F. Holliday and Abram Ellis were elected to the House, the former receiving 363 votes, the latter 273.

The first election under the Wyandotte Constitutional movement was held March 28, 1859. Lykins cast 460 votes for a convention and 64 against it, but as only the votes of Marysville reached the capital, and as they were sent to the Governor instead of to the County Board, they were not counted. The second election under this movement, held June 4, for delegates to the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention, resulted in electing B. F. Simpson by 443 votes, and W. P. Dutton by 431. The third election was on the adoption of the constitution held October 4, 1858. According to the proclamation of Gov. Medary, Lykins County cast 492 votes for the constitution and 295 against it; for the exemption of a homestead from forced sale, 455 for to 225 against. The fourth election, held November 8 was for officers under the Constitution. Marcus J. Parrott, the Republican candidate for delegate to Congress, received 453 votes, to 355 for Saunders W. Johnston, the Democratic nominee. W. W. Updegraff was elected to the Council, receiving 994 votes, and w. R. Wagstaff to the House. The fifth election was held December 6, for State off icers. Charles Robinson received 312 votes for Governor, to 200 for Samuel Medary, in Lykins County. James A, Phillips was elected to the Senate and Abram Ellis, G. A. Colton and Cyrus Tator to the House.

Public Land Sales - The public sales of Indian trust lands took place June 24, 1857, at Paola. These lands were of the finest and best in the territory, and the sale of them was largely attended. It was the design to sell only to actual settlers, and while the regulations governing the sales were in some cases evaded, as a general thing the land sold fell into the possession of those who desired it for purposes of settlement instead of speculation. the result of the sale was that Lykins county secured a large addition to its population of industrious, intelligent and prosperous citizens.

Hon. Robert J. Walker, who had, on May 9, previous, taken the oath of office as Governor of the Territory, Governor Bigler, Secretary Stanton, E. O. Perrine and others, were present, and made speeches on the political issues of the day. As a general thing, the speeches gave satisfaction to men of all parties. A portion of Mr. Perrine's speech, however, greatly offended the Free-state men. On the other hand, Charles A. Foster, of Osawatomie, in his reply to the addresses, by the distinguished visitor, reflected severely on the policy of both the territorial and national governments, and was somewhat personal in his remarks upon the pro-slavery leaders in the county., This stirred up considerable ill-feeling in both parties. Pistols and knives were drawn and serious trouble threatened several times, but fortunately the meeting adjourned without bloodshed.

On the life of Hon. H. B. Standiford, who, while a member of the Territorial Legislature, died at Lecompton, January 3, 1858, we quote from E. W. Robinson's History of Miami County, as follows: " By the death of Mr. Standiford, Lykins County lost one of her ablest and most widely respected citizens. He was a leader to be trusted, a friend warm and steadfast, and a citizen whose calm judgment, in public and private life, was consulted and relied upon by the entire community. In public life he was an uncompromising Free-state man; firm, but not vindictive, active, but not revengeful. He had been an anti-slavery member of the Missouri Legislature and came to Kansas in the spring of 1855, locating near the town of Stanton, where he took up his residence. he attended the special session of the Legislature which assembled at Lecompton, December 7, 1855, and died the day previous to the meeting of that body in regular sessions. His remains lie buried in the cemetery at Stanton."

Miami County is traversed by two railroads - the Missouri River, Fort Scott & Gulf, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad. The former runs through the county from north to south, the latter enters it from Missouri on the east, and after reaching Paola, turns southwest and runs into Anderson County. The first vote on issuing bonds was cast November 7, 1865, and resulted in favor of the proposition to subscribe for $150,000 of the capital stock of the Kansas and Neosho Valley Railroad Company, and to pay for the same with $150,000 in county bonds, by a vote of 488 to 248.

On August 5, 1869, an election was held on the proposition to subscribe $100,000 to the capital stock of the Paola & Fall River Railroad, and $125,000 to that of the Paola & State Line Railroad, issuing to each road an amount of county bonds equal to the county's subscription to its stock, upon the condition that the roads be constructed by January 1, 1871. The vote stood 1, 061 in favor of the proposition and 305 against it. The name "Paola & State Line Railroad" was subsequently changed to the "Missouri, Kansas & Texas" On July 27, 1870, a contract was made between the county and this company by which $75,000 in stock and bonds were to be exchanged when the railroad should be constructed from the east line of the State to Paola, and $50,000 when the road should reach the west line of the county.

On October 4, a vote was taken on extending the time for the completion of the road from January 1, 1871, to October, for its completion to Paola, and to July 1, 1872, for its completion to the west line of the county. On August 1, preceding this election, the $75,000 in the stock of this road issued to the county was sold back to the company for $5. The $150,000 in the stock of the Kansas & Neosho Valley Road (now the Missouri River, Fort Scott, & Gulf), had been previously sold for a like sum, $5. On the 21st of June, 1871, a contract was made with the Paola & Fall River Railroad by which the road was to be completed by July 1, 1872.

The company failing to complete its road before the expiration of the time, the $100,000 in bonds, hitherto issued, were called in, canceled and destroyed, July 3, 1872; as were likewise, at the same time, $50,000 issued to the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, that company having failed to complete its proposed extension west of Paola. The sum total of county bonds issued to railroads, and not called in, comprises $150,000 to the Missouri, Fort Scott & Gulf Road and $75,000 to the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Road, in all $225,000. Of this amount $7,200 was paid in July, 1882, leaving outstanding $117,800, the annual interest of which at seven percent, is $15,246. The assessed value of all railroad property, is $450,742, the taxes upon which, at three percent, amount to $13,522.26, nearly enough to pay the interest on the bonds.

This is, however, slightly modified by the fact that Osawatomie Township issued $15,000 in bonds to the St. Louis, Arizona & Texas, the successor of the Paola & Fall River Railroad. The company fulfilling the conditions of the grant by completing its road by January 1, 1880. This road is now a part of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas.

County Societies
Wea Grange, No. 445, Patrons of Husbandry, was chartered August 22, 1873. The charter members were: G. H. Giller, Thomas Holden, J. C. Lovett, William Holden, D. H. Heflebower, W. L. Holden, P. F. Lattimer, A. M. Wickline, Jacob Flanders, B. Heflebower, E. Kirby, E. Heflebower, H. R. Amos, D. J. Post, Joseph Hibner, J. C. Ziler, William Amos, Charles Flanders, Mrs. C. H. Giller, Mrs. J. C. Lovett, Mrs. D. H. Heflebower, Mrs. William Holden, Mrs. P. F. Latimer, Mrs. Jacob Flanders, Mrs. Charles Flanders, Mrs. B. Heflebower, Mrs. J. D. Post, Mrs. Rachel Amos.

The first officers were : Master, P. F. Latimer; Overseer, J. C. Lovett; Lecturer, J. J. Hibner; Chaplain, E. H. Kirby; Steward, Charles Flanders; Secretary, G. H. Giller; Treasurer, D. H. Heflebower; Ceres, Mrs. D. H. Heflebower; Pomona, Louisa __, Flora, Mrs. B. Helfebower.

The present officers are: Master, A. B. Lovett; Overseer, J. F. Hamon; Lecturer, Mrs. Annie Worthington; Steward, George W. Holden; Assistant Steward, Charles Williar; Chaplain, J. R. Hope; Treasurer, E. Heflebower; Secretary, C. F. Worthington; Gatekeeper, Charles Holden; Ceres, Celia Moore; Pomona, Louisa __; Flora, Miss Ida Myers; Lady Assistant Steward, Mrs. Lu Holden.

This Grange meets once a month at the Wea Grange hall, situated on the southwest quarter of Section 26, Township 15, Range 24. This hall and Union Chapel constitute one building, the Grange occupying the upper, and the Chapel the lower story. The building is a wooden structure, thirty feet wide by fifty feet deep, and with twenty-four feet posts, was built in 1879 and cost $3000. The lower story is appropriately furnished and seated for religious services, and is used by several denominations as a Union Chapel. The upper story is neatly and suitably furnished as a Grange Hall. The Grange is in good working order, having a membership of 140. It is situated in one of the richest sections of Kansas, and supported by an intelligent and enterprising people.

Ten Mile Grange, Patrons of Husbandry was organized in 1874. Was subsequently suspended, and reopened again in September, 1879. Mr. Irate Rhinehart was the first master, and H. A. Miller, overseer. On the reorganization, Mr. Rhinehart was again elected master, and J. V. Lyon, overseer. At this writing, 1883, N. B. Robinson is master, and M. B. Dayton, overseer. The membership is thirty-six. The lodge meets at the school house of District No. 27, Marysville Township. Mrs. M. Dayton is lecturer; Mrs. M. Nicholson, chaplain; Frank M. Randall, treasurer; O. G. Olney, secretary; J. Bratton, steward; J. Null, assistant steward.

As may be seen by the following statement, Miami County is one of the richest in the State. Total numbers of acres in the county, 375,360; total number of acres taxable, 368,927; value $2,621,147; total number of town lots, 4,840, value, $350,528; aggregate value of personal property, $1,016,550; railroad property, $450,742.56; grand total of taxable property in the county, $4,438,967.56.

Horses, 8,544, value $277,066; cattle 27,946, value $313,604; mules 1,139, value $53,169; sheep 3, 082, value $3,072; hogs 22, 739, value $63,337; farming implements, value $55,770. vehicles 2808, value $52,602; moneys $43,101, credits $21,548; merchandise $104,950, manufacturers' stock $12,225, notes $111,589, mortgages $57,914, other property $202,494, total $1,375,350; deducting Constitutional exemption, $358,800, there remains for personal property taxable $1,016,550.

The farms in the county comprise 275,984 acres, valued at $3,529,028. In 1881 the number of acres in the different kinds of crops were as follows: Winter wheat 6,380, rye 322, corn 103,779, oats 10,528, potatoes 777, sweet potatoes 10, sorghum 186, castor beans 442, cotton 10, flax 24, 414, millet and hungarian 4,357, pearl millet 498, broom corn 83, timothy meadow 4, 068, clover 1, 246, other tame grasses 630, prairie 48, 405, tame hay cut 4, 723 tons, prairie hay 48, 405.

But little attention has thus far been paid to forest cultures. The following is the number of acres of the various kinds of trees planted as reported by the assessors March 1, 1882: Cottonwood 2(one half) acres, honey locust 1 acre, maple 122 acres, walnut 28 acres, and of other varieties 11 three fourths acres. Of fruit trees the following number were reported: Apples-bearing 107,905, not bearing 46,082; pears-bearing, 1,901, not bearing, 1,980; peach-bearing 66,318, not bearing 19,843; plum-bearing 1,726, not bearing 1,524; cherries-bearing 26,994, not bearing 6,986; grapes, 56 acres-gallons of wine made 828.

The number of rods of the different kinds of fence was reported as follows: Board 49,869, rail 159,935, stone 22, 607, hedge 452,268, wire 280,817.

The first school organized in the county under the State was that at New Lancaster, April 19, 1862. At the present time there are ninety-five districts and ninety-four schoolhouses-one log, eighty-one frame, and twelve stone. The total school population of the county is 6,500; 3,256 males and 3, 244 females. During the year 1881 there were employed sixty-six male and eighty -two female teachers at an average monthly salary for the males of $34.73, and for the females $27.12. In 1882 there was a general advance in teachers' wages of $8 per month, and a corresponding advance in the efficiency of the schools. In 1880 three of the schools adopted a "Course of Study," and in 1881 twenty-two followed the example set.

The value of the schoolhouses and sites is estimated at $110,000; of furniture $11,100; of apparatus $1,300; of district libraries $175. Total value of all school property, $122,575.

The first Normal Institute was held in 1877, by Prof John Wherrell, who has conducted most of the annual Institutes since. It was attended by 180 teachers. The average attendance since has been about 125. These institutes have been productive of great good to the cause of public education, increasing the interest of the teachers in their work and their ability to perform it. It is only those teachers, who, in their own estimations, are beyond advancement, that receive no benefit from the Normal Institute.

The population of the county in 1860 was 5,095; in 1866, 6,151; in 1870 11,728; in 1875 12,607; in 1880 17,818.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,528 km² (590 mi²), of which 1,494 km² (577 mi²) is land and 35 km² (13 mi²), or 2.28%, is water.

Miami County's population was estimated to be 30,900 in the year 2006, an increase of 2397, or +8.4%, over the previous six years; it is the third fastest growing population in the state.

As of the U.S. Census in 2000, there were 28,351 people, 10,365 households, and 7,794 families residing in the county. The population density was 19/km² (49/mi²). There were 10,984 housing units at an average density of 7/km² (19/mi²). The racial makeup of the county was 95.96% White, 1.54% Black or African American, 0.52% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from other races, and 1.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.59% of the population.

There were 10,365 households out of which 37.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.50% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.80% were non-families. 21.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.09.

In the county the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 29.70% from 25 to 44, 23.10% from 45 to 64, and 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 97.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.00 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $46,665, and the median income for a family was $55,830. Males had a median income of $37,441 versus $27,271 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,408. About 3.60% of families and 5.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.40% of those under age 18 and 8.40% of those age 65 or over.

Cities and towns
Incorporated cities
Name and population (2004 estimate):

Paola, 5,161
Osawatomie, 4,600
Louisburg, 2,998
Fontana, 149

Unified school districts
Osawatomie USD 367
Paola USD 368
Louisburg USD 416

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